.netcore 3.1高性能微服务架构:封装调用外部服务的接口方法

本文为原创文章:首发:http://www.zyiz.net/

众所周知,微服务架构是由一众微服务组成,项目中调用其他微服务接口更是常见的操作。为了便于调用外部接口,我们的常用思路一般都是封装一个外部接口的客户端,使用时候直接调用相应的方法。webservice或WCF的做法就是引用服务,自动生成客户端。在webapi2.0里,我们都会手动封装一个静态类。那么在.netcore3.1的微服务时代,我们该如何处理这个问题呢? ----思路都是一样的,封装一个外部服务,并且使用依赖注入和 HttpFactory工厂等.netcore特有的方式提升性能。接下来我们一步一步说下详细的步骤:

第1步:--创建项目

为了便于构建生成nuget包,我们一般都每个外部服务创建一个独立的项目;如下图:

在解决方案里,我们创建了一个项目名为:"MuXue.Zyiz.Template.OuterClient",(项目起名一般为 公司名.部门名.项目名.xxx)。

第2步:创建一个IServiceCollection扩展服务,便于将服务注册信息。(重点)

 

    public static  class MsgApiClientServiceCollectionExtensions
    {
        public static IServiceCollection AddMsgApiClient(this IServiceCollection services, IConfiguration MsgClientConfiguration)
        {
            services.Configure<MsgClientConfiguration>(MsgClientConfiguration)
                    .AddHttpClient<IMsgApiClient, MsgApiClient>()
                    .ConfigureHttpClient(config=> {
                        config.BaseAddress = new Uri(MsgClientConfiguration.GetSection("url").Value);
                        config.Timeout = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30);
                        });

            return services;
        }
    }

该段代码虽然很短,但是最关键的部分:

代码的执行过程如下:

(1)  services首先注册一个操作配置文件的实例 :

services.Configure<MsgClientConfiguration>(MsgClientConfiguration)

 

(2) 添加HttpClientFactory工厂并且关联到services里,并将Client强制类型为IMsgApiClient(自定义的外部微服务接口名称) :

.AddHttpClient<IMsgApiClient, MsgApiClient>();//IMsgApiClient为接下来要创建的客户端

 

(3)设置HttpClient的相关配置参数:

 .ConfigureHttpClient(config=> {
                        config.BaseAddress = new Uri(MsgClientConfiguration.GetSection("url").Value);//外部微服务接口域名
                        config.Timeout = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30);  // 接口调用超时时间
                        });

 

还有如下注意点:

(1)以静态类和静态方法方式;

  (2) this IServiceCollection services ,这个参数我就不多解释了。

 (3) 一般我们都需要读取appsettings.json配置文件里的参数所以这里接收了一个参数---IConfiguration MsgClientConfiguration  ;当然如果你不需要读取配置参数,也可以忽略这个参数;

 

第3步:写外部接口调用的具体逻辑代码:

(1)创建一个接口,比如IMsgApiClient

 /// <summary>
    /// 企业微信消息发送客户端
    /// </summary>
    public interface IMsgApiClient
    {

        /// <summary>
        /// 调用接口接口:向微信发送消息
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="hrcodeStr">hrcode,多个以|隔开</param>
        /// <param name="msg">消息内容</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        Task<Result<string>> SendWxWorkMsgAsync(string hrcodeStr, string msg);

    }

(2)实现该接口:

  /// <summary>
        /// 调用外部接口:向SD发送消息
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="hrcodeStr">hrcode,多个以|隔开</param>
        /// <param name="msg">消息内容</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public async Task<Result<string>> SendWxWorkMsgAsync(string hrcodeStr, string msg)
        {
            Result<string> result = new Result<string>();
            string funName = "【调用外部接口:微信企业消息推送接口】";
            try
            { 
                 //具体的业务逻辑---根据自身业务来写
                MsgApiResult<WeiXinWorkMessageResponse> sendRet = await ZyizHttpClientExtensions.PostData<MsgApiResult<WeiXinWorkMessageResponse>>(_client, _logger, "/api/weixin/work/messages/send", msgReq);

                if (sendRet != null)
                {
                    _logger.LogInformation($"{funName},{hrcodeStr}推送消息成功");
                    result.state = true;
                    result.data = sendRet.Return_data.MessageId;
                }
                else
                {
                    result.state = false;
                    result.error_msg = sendRet.Return_msg;
                    _logger.LogError($"{funName}:{hrcodeStr}推送消息失败:{sendRet.Return_msg}");
                }

            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                result.state = false;
                result.error_code = ErrorCode.OuterApiError;
                result.error_msg = funName + "调用外部接口异常:。" + ex.Message;
                _logger.LogError(ex, $"{funName}向{hrcodeStr}推送消息处理异常:{ex.Message}");
            }


            return result;

        }

针对HttpClient的Post方法我特意封装了一个通用方法,如下:(可以根据自身项目自行改造)

 /// <summary>
   /// HttpClient扩展方法
   /// </summary>
    public class ZyizHttpClientExtensions
    {
 
        /// <summary>
        /// httpclient-post方法的简单处理,封装成一个方法,便于调用
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T"></typeparam>
        /// <param name="_client"></param>
        /// <param name="_logger"></param>
        /// <param name="actionUrl">http://xxx.com/后面之后的地址</param>
        /// <param name="param">一个对象</param>
        /// <param name="ContentType"></param>
        /// <param name="BearerToken"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public async static  Task<T> PostData<T>(HttpClient _client, ILogger _logger,string actionUrl, dynamic param, string ContentType = "application/json", string BearerToken = "")
        {
            string funName = "PostData";
            string paramStr = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(param);
            string jrclientguid = Guid.NewGuid().ToString("n");
            try
            {
                _logger.LogInformation($"{funName}开始,url={_client.BaseAddress},action={actionUrl},postData={paramStr} ,jrclientguid={jrclientguid}---------");

                HttpResponseMessage response;
                using (HttpContent httpContent = new StringContent(paramStr, Encoding.UTF8))
                {
                    if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(BearerToken))
                    {
                        _client.DefaultRequestHeaders.Authorization = new AuthenticationHeaderValue("Bearer", BearerToken);
                    }

                    httpContent.Headers.ContentType = new System.Net.Http.Headers.MediaTypeHeaderValue(ContentType);

                    response = await _client.PostAsync(actionUrl, httpContent);

                }
                if (response != null && response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
                {
                    Type t = typeof(T);
                    if (typeof(T) == typeof(string))
                    {
                        string respStr = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
                        return (T)Convert.ChangeType(respStr, typeof(T));
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        string respStr = response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync().Result;
                        T resp = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<T>(respStr);

                        return resp;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    return default(T);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                _logger.LogError(ex,$"{funName}报错啦,url={_client.BaseAddress},action={actionUrl},postData={paramStr} ,jrclientguid={jrclientguid}---,ex={ex.Message}" );
                throw;
            }
            finally
            {
                _logger.LogInformation($"{funName}结束,url={_client.BaseAddress},action={actionUrl},postData={paramStr} ,jrclientguid={jrclientguid}---------");
            }


        }


    }

 

第4步:将服务注入容器:代码在Startup类的ConfigureServices方法里:

 services.AddZyizMVC(Env)
               .AddZyizDbContext(Configuration)
.AddMsgApiClient(Configuration.GetSection(nameof(MsgApiClient)))//就是这行

 

第5步:使用:在Controller或其他地方都可以使用;

(1)首先在构造函数里注册:

  private readonly ILogger _logger;
        private IMsgApiClient _IMsgApiClient;

        public HealthController(ILogger<HealthController> logger,    IMsgApiClient iMsgApiClient)
        {
            _logger = logger;
            _IMsgApiClient = iMsgApiClient;

        }

(2)调用方法:

 /// <summary>
        /// 发消息
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        [HttpGet]
        public async Task<Result<string>> POk()
        { 
            Result<string> result = new Result<string>();
            result = await _IMsgApiClient.SendWxWorkMsgAsync("100001002", "我是沐雪,请明天来我办公室一趟!");
            //result.state = true;
            //result.data = "连接成功";

            return result;
        }

 

.netcore 3.1高性能微服务架构:封装调用外部服务的接口方法

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