.NET MVC5简介(五)管道处理模型IHttpModule

https://www.cnblogs.com/JimmyZhang/archive/2007/09/04/880967.html

IHttpModule

HTTPRuntime(运行时)。在一个控制台程序中,程序的入口是Program中的Main方法。那么,一个网站的入口在哪里呢?在最开始的ashx中,有个ProcessRequest方法,后来在WebForm中,在后台是一个不分类,继承自Page类,在Page_Load方法中去写代码。其实Page类型也有一个ProcessRequest的虚方法。

 

 

 都是这个ProcessRequest方法来处理请求的。在MVC中也是如此。在MVC中,任何一个Http请求,一定有一个IHttpHandler来处理,在这个接口中,定义了一个ProcessRequest方法。HttpApplication继承自IHttpHandler接口。任何一个Http请求就是一个HttpApplication对象来处理的,然后处理过程固定包含权限认证、缓存处理、Session处理、Cookie出库、生成html、输出客户端,与此同时,千千万万的开发者,又有各种各样的扩展诉求,任何一个环节都有可能扩展,如果是我们来设计,该怎么设计?

其实在MVC框架里面,用到的是观察者模式:

在HttpApplication类型,有这些事件:

 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs just before ASP.NET sends HTTP headers to the client.
        public event EventHandler PreSendRequestHeaders;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when the handler is selected to respond to the request.
        public event EventHandler MapRequestHandler;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when the application is disposed.
        public event EventHandler Disposed;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs as the first event in the HTTP pipeline chain of execution when ASP.NET
        //     responds to a request.
        public event EventHandler BeginRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when a security module has established the identity of the user.
        public event EventHandler AuthenticateRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when a security module has established the identity of the user.
        public event EventHandler PostAuthenticateRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when a security module has verified user authorization.
        public event EventHandler AuthorizeRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when the user for the current request has been authorized.
        public event EventHandler PostAuthorizeRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET finishes an authorization event to let the caching modules
        //     serve requests from the cache, bypassing execution of the event handler (for
        //     example, a page or an XML Web service).
        public event EventHandler ResolveRequestCache;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET bypasses execution of the current event handler and allows
        //     a caching module to serve a request from the cache.
        public event EventHandler PostResolveRequestCache;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs just before ASP.NET sends content to the client.
        public event EventHandler PreSendRequestContent;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET has mapped the current request to the appropriate event handler.
        public event EventHandler PostMapRequestHandler;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET has completed processing all the event handlers for the System.Web.HttpApplication.LogRequest
        //     event.
        public event EventHandler PostLogRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when the managed objects that are associated with the request have been
        //     released.
        public event EventHandler RequestCompleted;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when the request state (for example, session state) that is associated
        //     with the current request has been obtained.
        public event EventHandler PostAcquireRequestState;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs just before ASP.NET starts executing an event handler (for example, a
        //     page or an XML Web service).
        public event EventHandler PreRequestHandlerExecute;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when the ASP.NET event handler (for example, a page or an XML Web service)
        //     finishes execution.
        public event EventHandler PostRequestHandlerExecute;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs after ASP.NET finishes executing all request event handlers. This event
        //     causes state modules to save the current state data.
        public event EventHandler ReleaseRequestState;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET has completed executing all request event handlers and the
        //     request state data has been stored.
        public event EventHandler PostReleaseRequestState;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET finishes executing an event handler in order to let caching
        //     modules store responses that will be used to serve subsequent requests from the
        //     cache.
        public event EventHandler UpdateRequestCache;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET finishes updating caching modules and storing responses that
        //     are used to serve subsequent requests from the cache.
        public event EventHandler PostUpdateRequestCache;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs just before ASP.NET performs any logging for the current request.
        public event EventHandler LogRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when ASP.NET acquires the current state (for example, session state) that
        //     is associated with the current request.
        public event EventHandler AcquireRequestState;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs as the last event in the HTTP pipeline chain of execution when ASP.NET
        //     responds to a request.
        public event EventHandler EndRequest;
 //
        // 摘要:
        //     Occurs when an unhandled exception is thrown.
        public event EventHandler Error;
View Code

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 这里用的是观察者模式,把固定的步骤直接写在handler里面,在步骤前后分别放一个事件,然后开发者可以对事件注册动作,等着请求进来了,然后就可以按照顺讯执行一下。这种设计是不是很完美?但是仍有不完美的地方,就是每个请求都要执行这些事件,太多管闲事了。在.NET Core中出现了中间件,比这种更加完美。后续再详细介绍。

请见下列代码

 public class HttpProcessDemo
 {
     public class HttpApplicationDemo : IHttpHandler
     {
         public bool IsReusable => true;

         public event Action BeginRequest;
         public event Action EndRequest;
         public event Action PreSomething1Handler;
         public event Action PostSomething1Handler;
         public event Action PreSomething2Handler;
         public event Action PostSomething2Handler;
         public event Action PreSomething3Handler;
         public event Action PostSomething3Handler;
         public event Action PreSomething4Handler;
         public event Action PostSomething4Handler;
         public event Action PreSomething5Handler;
         public event Action PostSomething5Handler;
         public event Action PreSomething6Handler;
         public event Action PostSomething6Handler;
         public void ProcessRequest(HttpContext context)
         {
             this.BeginRequest?.Invoke();

             this.PreSomething1Handler?.Invoke();
             Console.WriteLine("Something 1");
             this.PostSomething1Handler?.Invoke();

             this.PreSomething2Handler?.Invoke();
             Console.WriteLine("Something 2");
             this.PostSomething2Handler?.Invoke();
             this.PreSomething3Handler?.Invoke();
             Console.WriteLine("Something 3");
             this.PostSomething3Handler?.Invoke();
             this.PreSomething4Handler?.Invoke();
             Console.WriteLine("Something 4");
             this.PostSomething4Handler?.Invoke();

             this.PreSomething5Handler?.Invoke();
             Console.WriteLine("Something 5");
             this.PostSomething5Handler?.Invoke();
             this.PreSomething6Handler?.Invoke();
             Console.WriteLine("Something 6");
             this.PostSomething6Handler?.Invoke();

             this.EndRequest?.Invoke();
         }
         //任何请求进来,只能是 123456
         //事件升级后,可以在程序启动时,实例化HttpApplicationDemo后,可以给事件注册动作,请求再进来时,处理不仅是123456了,还有多个事件里面的动作
     }
View Code

对HttpApplication里面的事件进行动作注册,就叫IHttpModule。

自定义一个HttpModule+配置文件注册,然后任何一个请求都会执行Init里面注册给Application事件的动作。

 

 

 

 public class CustomHttpModule : IHttpModule
 {
     public void Dispose()
     {
         Console.WriteLine();
     }

     public event EventHandler CustomHttpModuleHandler;

     /// <summary>
     /// 注册动作
     /// </summary>
     /// <param name="context"></param>
     public void Init(HttpApplication application)
     {
         application.BeginRequest += (s, e) =>
           {
               this.CustomHttpModuleHandler?.Invoke(application, null);
           };
         //application.EndRequest += (s, e) =>
         //{
         //    HttpContext.Current.Response.Write("CustomHttpModule.EndRequest");
         //};
         #region 为每一个事件,都注册了一个动作,向客户端输出信息
         application.AcquireRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "AcquireRequestState        "));
         application.AuthenticateRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "AuthenticateRequest        "));
         application.AuthorizeRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "AuthorizeRequest           "));
         application.BeginRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "BeginRequest               "));
         application.Disposed += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "Disposed                   "));
         application.EndRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "EndRequest                 "));
         application.Error += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "Error                      "));
         application.LogRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "LogRequest                 "));
         application.MapRequestHandler += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "MapRequestHandler          "));
         application.PostAcquireRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostAcquireRequestState    "));
         application.PostAuthenticateRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostAuthenticateRequest    "));
         application.PostAuthorizeRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostAuthorizeRequest       "));
         application.PostLogRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostLogRequest             "));
         application.PostMapRequestHandler += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostMapRequestHandler      "));
         application.PostReleaseRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostReleaseRequestState    "));
         application.PostRequestHandlerExecute += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostRequestHandlerExecute  "));
         application.PostResolveRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostResolveRequestCache    "));
         application.PostUpdateRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostUpdateRequestCache     "));
         application.PreRequestHandlerExecute += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PreRequestHandlerExecute   "));
         application.PreSendRequestContent += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PreSendRequestContent      "));
         application.PreSendRequestHeaders += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PreSendRequestHeaders      "));
         application.ReleaseRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "ReleaseRequestState        "));
         application.RequestCompleted += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "RequestCompleted           "));
         application.ResolveRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "ResolveRequestCache        "));
         application.UpdateRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "UpdateRequestCache         "));
         #endregion
     }
 }
View Code

访问下页面,就是这样的结果:

 

 

 正常流程下,会按照顺序执行19个事件。

学完HttpModule,我们可以做点什么有用的扩展?

  任何一个请求都会执行HttpModuleInit里面注册给Application的事件

  1、日志-性能监控

  2、权限

  3、缓存

  4、页面加点东西

  5、请求过滤

  6、MVC就是一个Module的扩展

不适合的:不是针对全部请求的,就不太适合用Module,因为有性能损耗

  1、多语言,根据Cookie信息去查询不同的数据做不同的展示,如果是全部一套处理,最后HttpModule拦截+处理,适合httpModule

  2、跳转到不同界面,也不合适

  3、防盗链,针对一类的后缀来处理的,而不是全部请求---判断----再防盗链

在HttpModule里面发布一个CustomHttpModuleHandler,在Global增加一个动作CustomHttpModuleBingle_CustomHttpModuleHandler(配置文件module名称_module里面事件名称),请求响应时,该事件会执行

protected void CustomHttpModuleBingle_CustomHttpModuleHandler(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    this.logger.Info("this is CustomHttpModuleBingle_CustomHttpModuleHandler");
}

HttpModule是对HttpApplication的事件动作注册动作,Global是对HttpModule里面的事件注册动作。

 

.NET MVC5简介(五)管道处理模型IHttpModule

全文结束